Edith Wharton: The House of Mirth

It has been only a few weeks since I last read Edith Wharton; I enjoyed Ethan Frome so much I just couldn’t hold out any longer to read The House of Mirth (1905), Wharton’s first major success.  I picked up this copy when, almost exactly one year ago this week, my wife and I took a trip to the Berkshires and visited Wharton’s beautiful home, The Mount.  I was so struck by the beauty of the surroundings and amazed at the genius of the mind who created them (Wharton was a student of architecture and landscaping) that I thought I’d read the book immediately.  As often happens, though, one book led to another . . . But enough of that: I now have read three of Wharton’s books, and I place each of them in my top tier.

The House of Mirth begins Grand Central Station when Mr. Selden spies Miss Lily Bart.  Wharton’s skill in the opening is incredible: from Mr. Selden’s few observations we get a sense of who Lily Bart is and how their relationship is.  Miss Bart is famous in New York’s high society.  Her beauty out-classes them all.  Any wealth she hoped to inherit, however, has been lost in prior generations until her mother and father had to live with the fact that they had nothing to pass on.  As seemed to be the case in the hardened class system, Lily is able to live off of her family’s reputation for wealth, and, of course, off of her beauty. 

Her parents, though, have now been dead for years.  Lily lives with her aunt who gives her a generous but irregular allowance.  Lily spends the money living among the rich.  It is a kind of investment for the one goal she’s always had in front of her, a goal which Mr. Selden brings up during their brief visit together at the beginning of the book: marriage.

She coloured and laughed.  “Ah, I see you are a friend after all, and that is one of the disagreeable things I was asking for.”

“It wasn’t meant to be disagreeable,” he returned amicably.  “Isn’t marriage your vocation?  Isn’t it what you’re all brought up for?”

She sighed.  “I suppose so.  What else is there?”

“Exactly.  And so why not take the plunge and have it over?”

She shrugged her shoulders.  “You ask as if I ought to marry the first man who came along.”

“I didn’t meant to imply that you are as hart put to it as that.  But there must be some one with the requisite qualifications.”

She shook her head wearily.  “I threw away one or two good chances when I first came out — I suppose every girl does; and you know I am horribly poor — and very expensive.  I must have a great deal of money.”

Selden was not proposing Lily marry himself — he certainly doesn’t have the money she needs, and he knows it.  He merely posed the question generally: why isn’t Miss Lily Bart, the handsomest eligible (or ineligible) woman unmarried?  Even stranger, she needs to be married if she’s to maintain her precarious position in society.  It isn’t getting any easier since Lily is not nearing completion of her third decade of life.  Worry, of course, is counterproductive: it just hastens the wrinkles she can’t afford to have.

She remembered how her mother, after they had lost their money, used to say to her with a kind of fierce vindictiveness: “But you’ll get it back — you’ll get it all back, with your face . . . .”  The remembrance roused a whole train of association, and she lay in the darkness reconstructing the past out of which her present had grown.

Selden’s question is a very good one.  Lily should have her pick of men.  Obviously most of them are fools pandering to society, but they are the fools she needs.  Early on we understand that Selden is not such a fool; she values his high opinion, knowing that it comes with more heart and understanding than the others’.

She had always been glad to sit next to him at dinner, had found him more agreeable than most men, and had vaguely wished that he possessed the other qualities needful to fix her attention; but till now she had been too busy with her own affairs to regard him as more than one of the pleasant accessories of life.

Selden is often on the fringes of the novel while Wharton eviscerates New York society by showing how ridiculous it is for people to pander to a society they despise only to keep that social structure functioning.  Lily is no different here, though she seems more conscious of how ridiculous it is — these games.  She can’t quite bring herself to marriage, though, just to solidify her place:

“That’s Lily all over, you know: she works like a slave preparing the ground and sowing her seed; but the day she ought to be reaping the harvest she over-sleeps herself or goes off on a picnic.”

Mrs. Fisher paused and looked reflectively at the deep shimmer of sea between the cactus-flowers.  “Sometimes,” she added, “I think it’s just flightiness — and sometimes I think it’s because, at heart, she despises the things she’s trying for.  And it’s the difficulty of deciding that makes her such an interesting study.”  She glanced tentatively at Selden’s motionless profile, and resumed with a slight sigh: “Well, all I can say is, I wish she’d give me some of he discarded opportunities.”

This novel shows that it is not as simple as it might seem — and that is where it transcends being just a fabulous story.  This social structure has locked itself into place by essentially killing any who oppose it:  “it was easy enough to despise the world, but decidedly difficult to find any other habitable region.”  Lily cannot simply go out and get a job: she has not been raised to do labor, for one thing, so she lacks basic skills necessary to do what women laborers were doing at the time; for another, a laboring woman then could hardly survive on her wages even if she weren’t nearly killed by the labor itself.  If Lily is repudiated by this society, then, she loses the source of living — not just of living the high life, no — of living at all.  If she doesn’t marry, she will be forced down the rungs until she dies in the street.  What a brutal society.  They hated this book, by the way.  A great discussion of this social structure as presented in The House of Mirth can be found in one of KevinfromCanada’s first blog posts.

The House of Mirth is strong in every way a good book should be strong.  On its basic level, the words Wharton chooses are just perfect, and she arranges them in beautiful sentences that are in and of themselves lessons on rhetoric and wit.  Using such sentences, Wharton creates a powerful plot that explores the consciousness of a woman in the early twentieth century who has nowhere to go.  I think the writing gets better in Ethan Frome and The Age of Innocence, but all the skill of observation and presentation to the reader is already well developed in this great book. 

I looked for The Custom of the County at a bookshop tonight.  They didn’t have it.  If they did, I have no doubt I would have put of writing this review in order to begin another great reading experience with Edith Wharton.

14 thoughts on “Edith Wharton: The House of Mirth

  1. I made it to The Mount a few years ago myself. And The House of Mirth is one of my favorite Whartons. I am about to go on a little mini-vacation and am taking The Glimpses of the Moon along. It is a Wharton I hadn’t heard of until I saw it in the gift shop at The Mount.

  2. Lee Monks says:

    Julian Barnes ranks The Custom of the Country as one of his ten favourite novels as listed in the link here-

    http://www.toptenbooks.net/newsingle.cgi?1269623317

    A magnificent writer quite rightly getting some major appreciation. Great review, Trevor.

  3. I agree completely, Trevor — Wharton’s writing may get better but her ability to perceive the forces at play in “society” was fully developed when she wrote this novel. And in many ways the roughness of her writing serves her very well in this book. Characters such as Mrs. Flowers rub against the reader in a way that is particularly effective. And they have all chosen to be bit players in the prison of the “society” that surrounds them. There is a current of underlying anger in this novel that gets much more subtle in her later writing.

    Like Thomas, The Glimpses of the Moon will be my next Wharton, probably quite soon as I am due for a Wharton fix (I too have never been disappointed, but am now rationing her remaining works). I am sure you will not be disappointed by The Custom of the Country and while you are shopping keep an eye out for the NYRB collection of her New York stories. It is perfect for when you want some Wharton but only have 15 or 20 minutes to read.

  4. Trevor says:

    I had the New York Stories in hand last night, Kevin, when I didn’t find The Custom of the Country. Instead of purchasing that, though, I opted for John Williams Augustus, which I’m very excited to begin. The New York Stories won’t be long out of my hands, though. I’d like to get all of the NYRB classics New York Stories collections.

    Thanks again, by the way, for pushing me to reading Wharton. It was just an intention until your early post.

  5. Patrick Murtha says:

    Wharton is a magnificent writer. A novel of hers that I don’t feel gets sufficient attention is The Children, published in 1928. It tells the story of a band of quasi-related children who have been brought together through a series of marriages, divorces, and re-marriages among proto-jet setters of the 1920s. The children, decidedly more mature than the frivolous adults who surround them, try to hold themselves together as a caring mini-society, but of course adult whim is against them….It is a heart-rending, perfectly poised book.

  6. Patrick: Thanks for that recommendation — I’m down to two unread Whartons (soon to be one) and The Children will be added to inventory soon. From a quick look at the description, the story seems to be somewhat different from her better known work — I look forward to that. Kevin

  7. Trevor says:

    I think you’re right in your impression that The Children doesn’t get sufficient attention, Patrick. You are actually the first person I’ve ever heard recommend it. I am not sure if without your recommendation I would have read it, at least, any time soon — there’s something disagreeable about reading an author’s best works and then being disappointed later. You’ve given me hope that this won’t be the case if I keep reading Wharton through to the end.

  8. Lee Monks says:

    Is it fair to say that The Age Of Innocence is both more acute and warmer than The House Of Mirth? Which might seem a contradiction in a comparitive sense (burgeoning wisdom perhaps preceivably emotionally impoverishing many other writers) and might mark an unusual evolution in such a fantastic observer of human behaviour.

  9. Laura says:

    I bought the very same edition of The House of Mirth while visiting The Mount! I loved it, too. I found a copy of The Custom of the Country at The Book Depository, although I haven’t read it yet.

    Have you read The Reef? It’s quite good. Of course, all of Wharton’s stuff is quite good …

  10. Lee Monks says:

    I really want to visit The Mount. I won’t be in Lenox anytime soon but, considering the history of the place and, after looking on Google, the beauty of it, I’d love to eventually.

  11. Trevor says:

    Is it fair to say that The Age Of Innocence is both more acute and warmer than The House Of Mirth?

    I’ve heard, Lee, that when Wharton had The House of Mirth published, “society” was very upset at her cutting depiction of them. Apparently The Age of Innocence was a response, an attempt to say that, hey, I’m not just attacking (though I would have to say she’s not entirely convincing in her attempt to attone). I certainly feel that The Age of Innocence is subtler, there’s observation and criticism between the lines than in The House of Mirth. Warmer? In some respects, I think so; but the chill is still there beneath the surface, I think. Perhaps I’m not responding to you directly — please let me know. I’m certainly intrigued.

    On your last point, Lee, I think you can take the commenters words for it: The Mount is a great place to visit. I love that entire region of the Berkshires, so if you make a trip out of it, you won’t be limited to seeing just The Mount. Melville’s house isn’t too far away. And there are many many other cultural things to see.

    Laura, I haven’t read The Reef. I’ve only read the three I’ve reviewed here, and those just recently. I’m happy, as a new convert, to find out that there is plenty more to live off of for the times ahead!

  12. Mary Gilbert says:

    I recently read The Glimpses of the Moon – in a lovely Pushkin Press edition. I am a great fan of Edith Wharton, in particular The House of Mirth but I was disappointed by this novel. It has many of the Wharton themes – the lives of the heedless rich and their hangers on – and it is set in France and Italy. This time though I found the dilemmas of the central couple who are married but penniless and who have decided to be available for better offers less poignant than those of Lily Bart. In fact I found the last third of the novel rather dull and the characters irritating. I think perhaps I’ve had enough of the rich and their troubles. This novel is set post WW1. My Welsh grandparents had their own struggles to move to London and find work at this time which they did heroically and by making all kinds of sacrifices. This made me less inclined to be sympathetic to the drones who form the central figures in this novel and whom Edith Wharton regards rather more indulgently. Not one her best I think but I’ll be very interested to hear what other readers think.

  13. Colleen says:

    I really love this book, and am kicking myself for not yet having read The Custom of the Country, which has been on my shelf for years.

    Have you seen the film version? If so, what did you think? I thought it was surprisingly good overall but that Anderson’s portrayal of Lily broke down in one very key scene…

  14. Nicola says:

    Glad you loved The House of Mirth. It’s by far my favourite Wharton. Can’t wait to find out what you think of mean ole Undine Spragg in The Custom of the Country.

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