The Tanners
by Robert Walser (1907)
translated from the German by Susan Bernofsky (2009)
New Directions (2009)
350 pp

Robert Walser The TannersIt’s a great time for English readers. After years of neglect, Robert Walser’s novels have now all been translated into English, the last being his first: The Tanners. The others are The Robber, The Assistant, and Jakob von Gunten. We can finally know what those famous German writers — including Kafka, Hesse, Benjamin, Sebald, and Handke — have been talking about and admiring. Of course, there is still a lot of work to do: these novels represent only a small fraction of Walser’s output. He mostly wrote short stories. I’m excited for the work to continue — this was only my introduction to Robert Walser!

Well, my real introduction to Walser was in the wonderful W.G. Sebald essay, which New Directions packaged with the novel. Of course, the essay includes fantastic insights as Sebald traces his personal connection to Walser as well as Walser’s achievements in prose. And there are a few pictures. It’s a treasure, alone worth the price of the book. Walser’s biography, which Sebald touches on, is fascinating and tragic — as exciting as most books I’ve read lately.

That’s not to say the novel The Tanners isn’t worth the price of the book. It’s worth buying two! What we have here is the first novel written by someone who must be one of the best writers of the twentieth century. I had read of Walser’s reputation before I read this book, and I armed myself with what I thought to be an appropriate amount of scepticism — to avoid disappointment — but I was blown away by the light sentences. The precision with which Walser captures the seasons and the times of day makes the experience of reading these impressions almost surreal. Truly, Susan Bernofsky did a fantastic job translating this book.

On its face, the book is an account of the five Tanner siblings: Klaus, Kaspar, Hedwig, Emil, and Simon. Simon, “the youngest and the one who occasions the fewest hopes,” is the principal character; we follow him throughout the book as he seeks for jobs and encounters his siblings. The siblings come into the narrative only now and again, though all are masterfully real, even Emil whom we hear about in only a couple of small passages late in the book. Simon is a wanderer, a loafer, he cannot submit to working for anyone for very long. He’s funny, and yet we never forget there is a lot of sadness under the light prose.

At the beginning of the book Simon is seeking a job with a small book shop. He seems to be forthright: “to be perfectly truthful, any inquiries concerning my person you might make will only result in your hearing bad reports.” This chapter seems to be a nice introduction to a lengthy book about Simon’s struggles in a bookshop. The owner is, as are most all characters, alive in the prose — at least, alive enough I expected his relationship with Simon to continue. But within just a few pages, Simon has quit this job. When the indignant owner asks what Simon could possibly be thinking, Simon launches into a long monologue about how the job is below him. Just as he charmed the owner into giving him the job in the first place, Simon now thoroughly offends him for giving Simon a job beneath his dignity — but it’s still rather charming to us readers. And that is the last we hear from the owner; Simon moves on. Similar episodes occur frequently throughout the novel. Here is a later example:

When I found myself running late today, I merely felt angry and annoyed, I was by no means filled with honest conscientious concern, nor did I reproach myself, or if I did so, it was only for still being such a cowardly fool that I leap to my feet at the stroke of eight and start running like a wind-up clock that runs whenever it’s wound. I thank you for having the energy to dismiss me and request that you think of me however you please. You are surely an admirable, commendable, great man, but, you see, I too wish to be one, and that’s why it’s good you’re sending me away, why it was so advantageous for me to comport myself today in a manner one might call unseemly.

A few sentences later, this boss discusses Simon’s reference letter. Here is Simon’s telling response:

I am glad to be leaving you without a letter in hand, for a reference from you would only remind me of my own cowardice and fear, a condition of sluggishness and relinquished strength, of days spent in idleness, afternoons filled with furious attempts at escape, evenings dedicated to sweet but pointless longings.

We quickly learn that Simon often launches into such rambling though pointed and beguiling monologues (“But it’s my habit to say anything and everything that comes to my mind, even if it should happen to be, for example, self-praise.”). The length of these monologues is the only gripe I have about the book, and it’s not a true gripe; they were just some of the more difficult and slower passages for me. Some paragraphs run on for pages, and Simon, though eloquent, is also frustratingly contradictory — we never know when he’s being honest and when he’s just saying something to please himself with his cleverness. So this cause for a gripe, it turns out, is instead a strength in the story. Walser, very aware of Simon’s preponderance to speak at length, comically inserts at one point, “At just this moment when he was preparing to launch into a monologue, a scream rang out in the corridor, followed immediately by the loud crash of crockery falling to the ground.”

Despite his flippancy and fickleness, Simon is a likeable — even admirable — character. He has an attractive joie de vivrethat at once is the cause and excuse of his failings. He wakes in the morning and finds the new day beautiful and promising (and Walser describes these moments with his own joie de vivre). Simon wants to live for the present. He has no interest in the future or in the past. Walser’s prose — the diction and syntax — seems to emphasize this in a very strange way. In his introduction, Sebald says that Walser writes each sentence to make us forget the preceding sentence. I found this hard to comprehend (I still do), yet it was very much my experience when reading The Tanners. Walser’s writing is so potent and vivacious, it is consistently trampling over itself with new delights and moments of lucidity. As the prose moves one, characters also come and go with little fanfare, frequently upsetting the readers’ expectations since the characters become so real and tragic. Yet for all of this forgetting, it makes the novel hold an impression of the weight of living — without ever becoming impressionistic! In the following example we meet Rosa, one of Simon’s friends. Simon is about to leave her, but I expected him to return to her after only a few pages.

Rosa held out her little hand to her young friend, who kissed it, said good night and departed. When he was gone, little Rosa sat there for a long time crying quietly to herself. She was weeping over her beloved, a young man with curls on his head, an elegant gait, an aristocratic mouth, but a dissolute lifestyle. “And so you love the one who doesn’t deserve it,” she said to herself, “and yet should I love out of reason, out of wishing to assign value? How laughable. What do I care about what is valuable — all I want is what I love.” Then she went to bed.

Except for a few brief scenes, Rosa, who has now gained the reader’s sympathy, leaves the narrative. We almost forget about her and her unrequited love for the unworthy Simon. When she does return, we again sense how pathetic her feelings are: “She was delighted to see him again after such a long time, but called him wicked and disloyal for having abandoned her like that, saying these things more in a pouting than an aggrieved tone of voice, and she would not be dissuaded from giving Simon a glass of red wine to drink, saying it would strengthen him for his nocturnal journey. She also quickly fried a sausage for him on her gas stove . . .” (By the way, that nocturnal journey Rosa refers to is fantastic.)

Simon’s lust for life, as can be seen in the brief encounters with Rosa (whom he leaves again quickly after she has fed him), forms part of the book’s tragedy. The other Tanner siblings (Emil excepted, presumably), worry about Simon. They all have professions of some sort, and they hope Simon will get his feet on the ground and anchor himself to some fulfilling profession. However, the siblings, particularly Hedwig, also find Simon’s lifestyle attractive. One winter, after ignoring his sister for years, Simon moves in with Hedwig. She works as a school teacher in the country and makes little money, but together they are happy passing away the evenings talking. Nevertheless, Hedwig feels unfulfilled herself. One evening (she’ll see things differently in the morning) Hedwig says:

I almost have the impression there’s something like a thin but opaque wall cutting me off from life. I can’t even manage to feel sad about it, just pensive. . . .

Though she is established in a country community, Hedwig longs for some change. Simon becomes more than just a brother to her; he becomes a life-filled companion with whom she longs to remain, though she knows he’s a usurper: “What a pity you can’t be more to me: This too you’d do willingly; for I see you nodding your head.” In the end, Hedwig sends him on his way, saying, “Neglect me, just as you used to neglect me.” Comforting herself, she says some lines that echo in the novel: “You haven’t the slightest talent for leaving behind memories. You don’t leave behind anything at all.” Their relationship, the subject of only a fraction of this novel, is touching, twisted, comic, sad, and tragic.

In this review I’ve managed to touch on only a scintilla of what this plotless, meandering book offers. Emil, “who is unfortunate and nothing more,” for example, adds a whole new dimension to the story in his brief, late introduction. He’s the mad brother, and it is suggested that “perhaps madness just ran in the family.” There are many other wonderful characters that leave behind ghosts of themselves when the leave the narrative. Their vague feelings make them all the more realistic.

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By |2018-05-26T19:18:34-04:00September 3rd, 2009|Categories: Book Reviews, Robert Walser|Tags: , , , |9 Comments


  1. Nadia September 4, 2009 at 9:17 am

    How is it you come across such different, but interesting books? I don’t really think that The Tanners is my cup of tea but I did enjoy reading your post. Plus it reminded me that I still need to read my copy of Austerlitz by W.G. Sebald. Hope you have a great long weekend! Cheers!

  2. Trevor September 4, 2009 at 12:46 pm

    How is it you come across such different, but interesting books?

    I feel lucky, Nadia! My method is actually nothing more than finding interesting publishers and keeping track of what they’re publishing. New Directions, Archipelago, Melville House, Open Letter Books, NYRB Classics, Pushkin Press . . . and one I just discovered and can’t wait to dig into — Godine! They all have backlists and frontlists that could keep me going for my whole life in reading.

    Now, how do they find such interesting and varied books to publish? That’s a question I hope to put to them some day soon! Good luck with Austerlitz! If you like Sebald a lot, it really might be worth looking at one of his influences — Walser — someday :) .

  3. Randy September 8, 2009 at 10:10 am

    I have this book enroute. I read his Jakob Von Gunten and had a hard time connectiong with its first person narrator. That book is held in high regard at Fictional Woods. I was told one needs to appreciate early Bildungsromans like Wihelm Meister to get a feel for where Jakob’s take off point was. I since read a few short stories from NYRB’s Selected Stories of Robert Walser.The [very short] story Titus is amazing.
    Thanks for bringing this guy to the light of blogs.It IS a great time for english readers indeed.

  4. […] Nick Buzanski, Drew Toal, Gary Lain, John Goldbach, Terry Pitts, Tom Cunliffe, Tim Bagdanov, and Trevor have to […]

  5. Peggy Aylsworth November 17, 2010 at 8:35 pm

    I have been a fan of Robert Walser’s writing ever since Susan Sontag revealed it in English. I’ve recently read Microscripts…utterly wonderful and as always, with Walser, deeply honest. I haven’t read The Tanners and am grateful for this review, will
    certainly get the novel. Thank you.
    Did you know Maira Kalman, that delightful artist/writer, did a painting that she thinks of as Walser dying in the snow?

  6. Trevor November 17, 2010 at 11:38 pm

    Thanks for your comments, Peggy. This is a wonderful book; I’m positive you’ll love it. I still need to make my way through the entire Microscripts — and the rest of his work.

    As for Kalman’s painting, I have seen it and find it haunting (though not as haunting as the photo it is based on).

  7. leroyhunter January 25, 2011 at 7:30 am

    I just finished this Trevor, and I greatly enjoyed it while also finding it a little disconcerting. I think the book is ill-served by blurbs that talk about “lightness…humour” as while those are certainly present, I came away with a stronger sense of melancholy, mystery and a book written by someone at odds with the world.

    A phrase you use “rambling…but beguiling” seems to best sum it up for me. Those monologues (and letters)! Yet as you say Simon is so likeable that you stick with him and wish him well.

    Peggy’s comment above made me think again about the journey you describe Simon taking, where he encounters Hedwig’s erstwhile friend Sebastian…did that scene not strike you as odd? Probably just a coincidence, but still…

    Finally, the introduction, which I mean to back and read again: for a starved Sebald reader, it is indeed worth the price alone. The links between the 2 writers seem so clear and obvious having read it, but had never occurred to me before (I’ve not read enough Walser I guess). Incidentally, the book the essay is taken from shows no sign of being published, worse luck.

  8. Trevor January 25, 2011 at 3:15 pm

    a book written by someone at odds with the world

    I loved this, leroy. Thanks for your comment. I hope that it brings this thread up for some lucky reader who has yet to read Walser.

    As for the scene when Simon encounters Sebastian, I don’t remember how I reacted when I read it. It’s been too long since I read the book. The tone and feel remains deep in my memory, but some of the events are a bit hazy. Need to correct that!

  9. […] read by him was The Tanners back in 2009 when it was released by New Directions (see my thoughts here). Though new to the fold, I easily understand why Walser’s work and life holds so many […]

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